The education system, demography and unintended consequences

  • Geraldine McDonald


A major feature of the past year has been public discussion about education. The solution to problems in the outcomes of schooling have almost invariably been seen in the processes of teaching and learning. There has been little discussion of the education system itself. Examples are provided of effects which are education system related but independent of teaching.


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Author Biography

Geraldine McDonald
Dr Geraldine McDonald, now retired, has worked for the New Zealand Council for Educational Research and Victoria University of Wellington. She has long been interested in how education systems work and whether systems can supply answers to mysteries.
How to Cite
MCDONALD, Geraldine. The education system, demography and unintended consequences. The New Zealand Annual Review of Education, [S.l.], v. 21, july 2012. ISSN 1178-3311. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 oct. 2020. doi: