A Recipe for Paradox


  • Rashed Ahmad Kuwait University




In this paper, we provide a recipe that not only captures the common structure of semantic paradoxes but also captures our intuitions regarding the relations between these paradoxes. Before we unveil our recipe, we first talk about a well-known schema introduced by Graham Priest, namely, the Inclosure Schema. Without rehashing previous arguments against the Inclosure Schema, we contribute different arguments for the same concern that the Inclosure Schema bundles together the wrong paradoxes. That is, we will provide further arguments on why the Inclosure Schema is both too narrow and too broad.

We then spell out our recipe. The recipe shows that all of the following paradoxes share the same structure: The Liar, Curry's paradox, Validity Curry, Provability Liar, Provability Curry, Knower's paradox, Knower's Curry, Grelling-Nelson's paradox, Russell's paradox in terms of extensions, alternative Liar and alternative Curry, and hitherto unexplored paradoxes.

We conclude the paper by stating the lessons that we can learn from the recipe, and what kind of solutions the recipe suggests if we want to adhere to the Principle of Uniform Solution.


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