Architectural History Aotearoa <p><em>AHA: Architectural History Aotearoa</em> is a forum for broad-ranging discussion on the built environment and related issues in Aotearoa.&nbsp; Each issue focuses on a specific decade.&nbsp; It encourages experimental, raw thinking and investigation, from researchers and scholars (academics, enthusiasts, practitioners, and students) from all career stages and experiences that opens up new understanding of architecture in our country.&nbsp; It aims to be intellectually expansive in its investigations of each focussed time period and academically generous.</p> <p>Aha is both an acronym and a word in te reo Māori; translates "aha" as a verb meaning: "to do what? treated in what fashion? to do anything" and a noun meaning "what?"</p> en-US (Christine McCarthy) (Library Research Services) Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 "Good Architecture should not be a plaything": New Zealand Architecture in the 1920s When Frank Eggar Greenish (c1887-1962) criticised the Reform Government's architectural policies he boldly stated that: "Good architecture should not be a plaything - a luxury - for a spirited nation. It should be a very real part of national character." The statement embodied sentiments which were uncontested among New Zealand architects of the period. Instead they were frustrated by their seeming inability to convey the necessity of architecture to the public and to the government, and to determine, within the New Zealand context, the appropriate standing of the architectural profession. Christine McCarthy Copyright (c) 2011 Christine McCarthy Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Concrete passions: Anscombe's material politics Edmund Anscombe (1874-1948) was an advocate of concrete as a building material, especially in relation to housing. This paper examines Anscombe's promotion of concrete, with specific reference to his patented OK blocks in the 1920s, a time when he is better known for his work on the University of Otago campus, the 1925 New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition, and his move from Dunedin to Wellington in 1928. Christine McCarthy Copyright (c) 2011 Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 +0000 The 102-foot Australian Invasion of Central Wellington in the 1920s A significant change to the building bylaws by the Wellington City Council in the early 1920s allowed for the design and erection of much taller buildings in the central city than had previously been permitted. Coupled with the use of steel frames and concrete floors, buildings started to reach eight or nine storeys; not tall by American standards, but regarded as skyscrapers in a city where three- and four-storey buildings were still the norm. The fact that several of the most prominent of these new buildings were designed mainly by Australian architects, both in the 1920s and the early 1930s, does not seem to be widely known, or has been partially concealed by quoting the local supervising architects as the prime movers in the planning. Some of the buildings were erected to house branches or Wellington head offices of Australian firms but others were solely for New Zealand clients. The firm of A & K Henderson of Melbourne led the way with their 1926 design of the T & G Building (now Harcourts) on Lambton Quay, in association with Atkins and Mitchell. Australian born and trained Llewellyn Williams had already designed the tall, but narrow, Druids Chambers further to the north and went on to oversee more tall structures in the next few years. Hennessy & Hennessy, also Australian, pioneered Wellington Art Deco designs in the early 1930s. Both the building techniques and the architectural styles employed showed strong American influences, particularly the tripartite form developed in Chicago. At first the massing of Inter-War Stripped Classical was employed, later followed by the more flowing lines of Art Deco. Local architects were not slow to accept the new challenges required in the construction of taller, more massive buildings. The firm of Atkins and Mitchell was responsible for the DIC Building (now Harbour City Centre) in 1928 whereas JM Dawson had planned the Hope Gibbons Building, a rather more traditional structure, in Dixon Street in 1925. He was also responsible for Wakefield Chambers on the corner of Wakefield Street and Taranaki Street in 1928. The huge new commercial buildings of the 1920s took advantage of the increasing availability and affordability of electric power for lighting, heating, lifts and the pumping of water. Telephones could be fitted in every office; central heating started to be installed, and there was better fire-fighting equipment. Steel-framed buildings were less susceptible to earthquake shocks. Many of the buildings we describe here are still standing, although often modified for other uses. They have become iconic structures reflecting the marked advances of the 1920s era. Geoff Mew, Adrian Humphris Copyright (c) 2011 Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 +0000 The "Taranaki Type": C.H. Moore and the "revolutionary" fresh-air classroom design Charles Howard Moore was the Taranaki Education Board Architect from 1920-43. During his tenure Moore developed an open-air classroom design that he called the "Taranaki type"; a design that he claimed was an improvement on the "Fendalton type" of Christchurch. The first Taranaki "fresh air classroom" was opened in New Plymouth in 1928. The "Taranaki type" embraced the principles of natural light and fresh air in an innovative and thoughtful way that took into consideration climatic conditions and the needs of the users. Moore's distinctive design dominated classroom construction throughout the Taranaki region and many of them continue to be used for educational purposes. The New Zealand Historic Places Trust has registered examples of the Taranaki fresh-air classroom and many have been identified by local councils for their architectural and technological values. However, little has been written about CH Moore - his life, training, experiences, and influences. Was he a lone practitioner of the open-air design? Was his design "revolutionary"? Were his classrooms successful? Utilising a variety of archival sources, genealogical research, and comparative analysis, this paper will reveal a more detailed picture of CH Moore and examine his contribution to the design of educational buildings in New Zealand. Natasha Naus Copyright (c) 2011 Natasha Naus Mon, 06 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 "... the menace posed to public healthy "insantiary pahs": Sir Māui Pōmare's clean up of Māori architecture Apirana Ngata, Te Puea Hērangi and Wiremu Rātana each left behind what Deidre Brown calls "a major architectural movement" – Ngata staged an architectural renaissance based on traditional practices, Te Puea looked to develop a blending of building practices, and Rātana pointed to a new direction altogether. Sir Māui Pōmare, however, left no distinctive architecture that embodied his views of his people's future, and has largely been overlooked in New Zealand's architectural history as a result. Pōmare's crusade to improve the health of Māori communities, however, did have a pervasive and direct impact on Māori architecture. His beliefs and actions provide an important counterpoint to those of his contemporaries, helping us understand the full spectrum of architectural actions taken by Māori in the early twentieth-century. This paper examines Sir Māui Pōmare's work and its architectural impact, placing it in the context of other influential Māori architectural movements of the time. Tyson Schmidt Copyright (c) 2011 Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 +0000 "The hours and times of your desire": Sholto Smith's romantic vision for Colwyn (1925) Early in 1920, French-born architect Sholto Smith (1881-1936) decided to abandon his Moose Jaw practice, and his Canadian wife and family, and emigrate to New Zealand. His decision seems to have been precipitated by a memorable encounter with a woman who would later become a celebrated pianist for the Auckland radio station 1YA, Phyllis Mary Hams (1895-1974). Sholto Smith had met Hams during World War I while he was on leave from the Canadian Expeditionary Force and visiting Colwyn Bay, North Wales. Sholto Smith's major contribution to Arts and Crafts Auckland, the house he designed as a gift for Phyllis Hams on the occasion of their marriage on 3 March 1925, was named <em>Colwyn</em> to memorialise their Welsh meeting place. Despite only living in New Zealand for his last 16 years, Sholto Smith left a legacy of over 100 buildings. Colwyn was a well-placed advertisement for his domestic architecture, and his Arts and Crafts and Tudor house designs were soon in great demand throughout the building boom of the 1920s. Smith had arrived in Auckland on 17 March 1920 and immediately joined the practice of Thomas Coulthard Mullions (1878-1957) and C Fleming McDonald. The latter had been the architect of the original Masonic Hotel in Napier (1897), and the firm originally specialised in hotels and commercial architecture using modern materials including reinforced concrete, but dressing the modernist structure with historicist references. Several of their inner-city Auckland buildings such as the Waitemata and Manukau Council building on the corner of Shortland and Princes Street, Chancery Chambers in O'Connell Street and the Lister building on the corner of Victoria and Lorne Streets, still survive. After McDonald's death, Sholto Smith became a partner in the firm and encouraged Thomas Mullions to move into residential property development in central Auckland: Shortland Flats (1922) was a commercial venture where the architects formed a company owning shares in the building which comprised 24 flats designed to generate rental income. But detached suburban domestic architecture was Sholto Smith's real passion. Before leaving Canada for fresh beginnings in New Zealand, he drew an architectural perspective for his ideal home. He titled this drawing Dreamwold, and his vision for this ideal house was to be realised in Auckland at 187 St Heliers Bay Road. For this house design, Sholto Smith drew inspiration from Canadian colleagues such as British Columbian architect Samuel Maclure (1860-1929) and from the British masters of the Arts and Crafts Movement including CFA Voysey (1857-1951) and MH Baillie Scott (1865-1945). Colwyn is reminiscent of the latter's Corrie Wood (1908) in Letchworth Garden City, Hertfordshire in its adventurous open planning. A little bit of Olde Englande recreated in the South Pacific for his homesick new wife, Colwyn was Sholto Smith's perfect Dreamwold, right down to the text on the wooden mantelpiece over the fireplace. The quote inscribed there is taken from the beginning of Shakespeare's sonnet 57, and seems addressed by Smith to his 30-year-old bride: &quot;Being your slave, what should I do but tend upon the hours and times of your desire?&quot; Epitomising the romantic archetype, Colwyn remains a fine example of the type of Arts and Crafts dwelling that well-to-do Aucklanders aspired to inhabit in the 1920s. Linda Tyler Copyright (c) 2011 Sat, 01 Jan 2011 00:00:00 +0000